How to Write a Critical Essay
A critical essay is a piece of academic writing that is usually in the form of a classic composition: introduction, full body, and a summarizing conclusion. It provides interpretation and analysis of a set text. A critical essay must be written with an academic aim or purpose; it often proposes a sound argument. Although frequently confused with a review, a critical essay is more similar to a formal essay. It should incorporate scholarly observations, with all facts correctly referenced.
Steps for Writing an Critical Essay
- A text in the form of a book, film, piece of music, or play must be selected by the instructor or student. The text must be read a number of times. If the study concerns a film, play, or piece of music, it must be watched or listened to more than once.
- Relevant material from which references can be drawn must be sought. Journals, books, articles and online material are suitable, as long as the references are scholarly, not popular.
- Notes must be written about the text in question, and an argument must be constructed. A stand must be taken by the writer in favor of a particular view.
- The body, in the form of three or more paragraphs, must be written first. Each paragraph must discuss one point that supports the argument.
- A conclusion is written next, summing up the points, summarizing the argument, and giving a one-sentence closing.
- The introduction is written last to make sure it presents the argument clearly. It must contain a strong thesis statement that also sums up the argument.
- The finished essay must be read a number of times, corrected, edited and finally proofed for errors. Grammar, punctuation and syntax are important because they convey accurate meaning.
Key Points to Consider
- An argument can be based on the qualities of the text in question. Thought must be given to the kinds of readers or audiences to whom the writing might be addressed by the creator of the set text.
- A critical essay must examine the text, question it, and evaluate it. The writer must state what kind of text it is, and whether it achieves the aims of its creator. That is, does it entertain, does it educate, does it instruct, does it inform?
- A suitable combination of main and secondary points must be used in the three or more body paragraphs, which contain the central thrust of the essay. Ideas, notions and concepts taken from the initial set of notes must be reworked to produce a fine argument.
- Rhetorical questions must not be used, since they are a weak and predictable way to form an argument, and truisms must be avoided assiduously. Making a point using the findings of an authoritative author is always best.
- Persuasive techniques must be used in an effective manner to argue the value or lack of value of the text. The most common techniques are to appeal to emotion, to evidence, and facts supported by citation. These techniques must adhere to a discipline such as logic.
- A critical essay does not merely accept the decisions and opinions of others, however. It must question everything, analyze, and propose apposite alternative views, options and attitudes.
One style to use when writing a critical essay is the claim and evidence style. The writer must make a number of claims about the set text and the findings made on reading it. These claims are then supported by evidence found in other texts, which are used as references.
Another effective style is the new information method. Here, the writer provides fresh research which has not yet been used by others to discuss the given text.
Examination and exploration is a style that looks into the fine detail of a text and explores all the possible motivations, inspirations and reasons the writer or creator might have had during the creative process.
Dos and Don’ts
Following these handy tips ensures success to the careful writer. There is always the possibility of making mistakes, however. It is useful to use this checklist to avoid submitting a weak critical essay.
- Avoid driving a point home too strongly. It is enough to support your claims with evidence without strong language or repetition.
- An effective critical essay must appeal to the reader’s sentiments, but must not bludgeon with emotion.
- Avoid making points that are mere opinions.
- Make sure your language matches the argument style. Never fall into colloquialisms or slang in an effort to be more persuasive.
- Do not omit direct quotes from relevant texts. Ensure all your references are up-to-date and germane to the subject and theme. Using old books and sources is the sign of a negligent student.
- Avoid using too many negative sentences. A critical essay can be just as positive as any other piece of writing: analysis, interpretation and questioning need not be negative.
- Avoid presenting facts and data, but omitting a clear and well thought-out thesis argument. Make a logical outline or plan, and keep to it.
A well-written critical essay is one where the writer has made a clear argument in flawless language. Logic, sound reasoning, and an investigative attitude are always seen by examiners as good foundations for a well-organized discussion about a set text.
Now that you have acquainted yourself with the basic critical essay writing tips and rules, you can check out our best critical essay samples to link theory with practice.