The Micromouse competition, dating back to 1952 with Claude Shannon’s Theseus mouse, challenges participants to build autonomous robots that navigate through mazes as quickly as possible. In recent years, innovation in strategy, technology, and mechanics has intensified the competition. The key objective is to find the fastest, not necessarily the shortest, path through the maze. Advanced strategies like flood fill algorithms and hardware improvements, including gyroscopes and vacuum fans for added friction, have significantly enhanced the capabilities of these robotic mice. This competition represents not just a software or hardware challenge, but a comprehensive robotics problem, constantly evolving with new technological advancements and inventive strategies.

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This article is a summary of a YouTube video “The Fastest Maze-Solving Competition On Earth” by Veritasium

Key insights

  • History and Evolution: The Micromouse competition, inspired by Claude Shannon’s Theseus mouse in 1952, has a long history dating back to the late 1970s. It started as a challenge for building autonomous robots capable of navigating mazes, inspired by early examples of machine learning.
  • Global Reach and Popularity: Originating from a misunderstanding about electronic mice, the competition gained global interest and spread worldwide, attracting thousands of entrants and public attention, including broadcast on national television.
  • Competition Rules and Structure: The competition involves autonomous robotic mice that must navigate through a maze without any external guidance like GPS or remote control. The mice are limited in size, and the maze layout is only revealed at the competition’s start.
  • Strategies for Maze Navigation: Participants have developed various strategies over the years, with flood fill being the most popular. This strategy involves the robot optimistically navigating the maze, updating its path as it encounters walls.
  • Technological Innovations: The competition has seen significant technological advancements. This includes the shift from stepper motors to DC motors with encoders, the addition of gyroscopes for better orientation, and the innovative use of vacuum fans to increase friction and improve turning speed.
  • Search for the Fastest Path: Contrary to solving for the shortest path, the focus has shifted to finding the fastest path through the maze. This involves considering fewer turns and smoother paths, even if they are longer.
  • Ongoing Innovation and Challenge: The competition continues to evolve, with new technologies and strategies being introduced. The Micromouse competition remains a dynamic field, illustrating the complexity and challenges of robotics, software, and hardware integration.

Timestamped Summary

  • 0:00 – 0:23: Introduction to the Micromouse competition, where robotic mice navigate mazes quickly.
  • 0:48 – 2:00: History of Micromouse, inspired by Claude Shannon’s Theseus mouse in 1952. The IEEE’s Micro-Mouse Maze Contest in 1977 drew significant attention.
  • 2:40 – 4:13: Rules of the competition: autonomous operation, size limitations, and maze design.
  • 4:03 – 4:58: The strategy for Micromice involves learning the maze on the first run and then speeding through the best path on subsequent runs.
  • 6:00 – 7:19: Discussion on solving the maze using different algorithms like depth-first and breadth-first search.
  • 8:03 – 8:20: Introduction to the flood fill algorithm, a popular strategy used by Micromice.
  • 10:25 – 11:00: Shift in focus from shortest to fastest path; example of the Red Comet mouse taking a longer but faster route.
  • 11:23 – 12:04: Variations in routes during competitions and the unpredictability of Micromice.
  • 12:51 – 13:14: Micromouse is more than a software or hardware problem; it’s a comprehensive robotics challenge.
  • 16:35 – 17:00: Technological advancements in Micromouse, such as improved sensors, motors, and gyroscopes.
  • 17:53 – 18:03: Introduction of vacuum fans for better control during high-speed turns.
  • 20:31 – 21:04: The impact of vacuum fans on the competition, leading to faster and more controlled Micromice.
  • 21:36 – 22:04: Continuous evolution in Micromouse design and strategy, with open possibilities for future innovations.
  • 22:26 – 22:57: Micromouse as a blend of various engineering and programming disciplines, offering a unique learning and innovation platform.
  • 23:14 – 23:23: Micromouse as a testament to the complexity of seemingly simple problems in robotics and artificial intelligence.


What is the Micromouse Competition?

The Micromouse competition is an annual robotics race where participants build autonomous robotic mice to navigate mazes as quickly as possible.

How Did the Micromouse Competition Originate?

The concept originated from Claude Shannon’s electronic mouse, Theseus, in 1952. It gained prominence with the IEEE’s Amazing Micro-Mouse Maze Contest in 1977.

What Are the Rules for the Micromouse Competition?

The rules stipulate that the robotic mouse must be fully autonomous, without internet connection, GPS, or remote control. The mouse must fit within a 25-centimeter frame and navigate a maze with corridors only 18 centimeters wide.

What Strategies Do Micromice Use to Navigate Mazes?

Common strategies include depth-first and breadth-first search, but the most popular is the flood fill algorithm. This method involves the mouse optimistically navigating towards the goal and updating its path as it encounters walls.

How Have Micromice Evolved Over the Years?

Over the years, Micromice have seen significant technological advancements such as improved sensors, motors, gyroscopes, and the addition of vacuum fans for better control at high speeds. This evolution reflects the ongoing innovation in robotics and AI.

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