When working with strings in JavaScript, it’s often necessary to compare them to determine their order or check for equality. Comparing strings in JavaScript can be done in various ways, and in this guide, we will explore different techniques and methods to accomplish this task effectively.

Understanding String Comparison in JavaScript

String comparison involves assessing the alphabetical or lexicographical order of two strings or determining if they are equal. JavaScript offers multiple approaches to compare strings, each with its own benefits and considerations.

Method 1: Using localeCompare

The localeCompare method is a powerful tool for comparing strings in JavaScript. It takes into account the current locale settings and provides a reliable way to determine the relative order of strings.


Usage and Examples

The localeCompare method returns:

  • 1 if string1 is greater (higher in alphabetical order) than string2.
  • -1 if string1 is smaller (lower in alphabetical order) than string2.
  • 0 if string1 and string2 are equal in the alphabetical order.

Let’s explore some examples to understand how it works:

const string1 = "hello";
const string2 = "world";
const compareValue = string1.localeCompare(string2); // -1

In this example, the compareValue is -1 because, in the English locale, the letter “h” in “hello” comes before the letter “w” in “world.”

const string1 = "banana";
const string2 = "back";
const compareValue = string1.localeCompare(string2); // 1

Here, the compareValue is 1 because, in the English locale, the substring “ban” in “banana” comes after the substring “bac” in “back.”

const string1 = "fcc";
const string2 = "fcc";
const string3 = "Fcc";
const compareValue1 = string1.localeCompare(string2); // 0
const compareValue2 = string1.localeCompare(string3); // -1

Comparing “fcc” and “fcc” yields 0 because they are equal in order. However, comparing “fcc” and “Fcc” returns -1 because the capital “F” is considered greater than the lowercase “f” in the English locale.

It’s worth noting that in some browsers, instead of returning -1 or 1, localeCompare may provide other negative or positive values. Therefore, it’s recommended to rely on negative (less than 0) or positive (greater than 0) values instead of specific -1 or 1 results.

Method 2: Using Mathematical Operators

Another approach to comparing strings in JavaScript is by utilizing mathematical operators such as greater than (>), less than (<), and equal to (===).

Usage and Examples:

Mathematical operators compare strings based on the order of their characters. Let’s consider the following examples:

const string1 = "hello";
const string2 = "world";
console.log(string1 > string2); // false

In this case, string1 is not greater than string2 because the letter “h” comes before the letter “w” in the alphabetical order. Therefore, the comparison evaluates to false.

const string1 = "banana";
const string2 = "back";
console.log(string1 > string2); // true

Here, string1 is greater than string2 because the substring “ban” comes after the substring “bac” in the alphabetical order.

const string1 = "fcc";
const string2 = "fcc";
const string3 = "Fcc";
console.log(string1 === string2); // true
console.log(string1 < string3); // false

The comparison string1 === string2 returns true since both strings are equal. However, string1 < string3 evaluates to false because “fcc” is not less than “Fcc” in the alphabetical order.

While mathematical operators offer a straightforward way to compare strings, they may yield unexpected results, especially when dealing with case sensitivity and different languages. It’s recommended to use the localeCompare method for more accurate and language-independent string comparisons.


Comparing strings in JavaScript is a common task, and having the right techniques at your disposal can greatly enhance students’ coding efficiency, even though many of them pay for programming homework. In this guide, we explored two methods: using the localeCompare method and utilizing mathematical operators. While both approaches have their merits, the localeCompare method provides a more robust and versatile solution, especially when dealing with different locales and languages.

Remember, when comparing strings, it’s crucial to consider case sensitivity, locale settings, and the specific requirements of your application. By leveraging the appropriate string comparison techniques, you can ensure accurate results and enhance the overall functionality of your JavaScript code. Happy coding!


Are there any performance considerations when comparing strings in JavaScript?

When comparing strings in JavaScript, there are a few performance considerations to keep in mind. Comparing strings using the localeCompare method is generally more efficient than using mathematical operators like >, <, or ===. This is because localeCompare takes into account the current locale settings and provides accurate results for different languages. Additionally, it’s important to consider the length of the strings being compared. Comparing long strings can be more time-consuming than comparing shorter ones.

Can I compare strings with special characters or symbols in JavaScript?

Yes, you can compare strings with special characters or symbols in JavaScript. The comparison methods, such as localeCompare and mathematical operators, work effectively regardless of the presence of special characters or symbols. JavaScript treats each character in a string as a Unicode value, allowing for accurate comparisons.

What happens if I compare an empty string with a non-empty string in JavaScript?

When comparing an empty string ("") with a non-empty string using methods like localeCompare or mathematical operators, the comparison will be based on the Unicode values of the characters. An empty string is considered smaller (lower in alphabetical order) than any non-empty string. As a result, the comparison will usually evaluate to true when checking if an empty string is less than a non-empty string.

How can I handle case-insensitive string comparison in JavaScript?

JavaScript provides various ways to handle case-insensitive string comparison. One approach is to convert the strings to lowercase or uppercase using the toLowerCase() or toUpperCase() methods before comparing them. For example, you can compare two strings in a case-insensitive manner using string1.toLowerCase() === string2.toLowerCase(). Another option is to use the localeCompare method with the appropriate locale settings to achieve case-insensitive comparisons.

Are there any built-in JavaScript functions specifically for comparing strings?

While JavaScript does not have specific built-in functions solely dedicated to comparing strings, it offers several methods and operators that can be used for string comparison. The localeCompare method is particularly useful for comparing strings in different locales and languages. Additionally, mathematical operators like >, <, and === can be employed to compare strings based on their alphabetical order. By utilizing these methods and operators effectively, you can achieve accurate and reliable string comparisons in JavaScript.

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