Vectors are fundamental data structures in R, allowing you to store elements of the same data type efficiently. In this tutorial, we’ll explore various ways to create vectors in R, using functions like c(), vector(), and more. We’ll also discuss LSI keywords related to vector creation, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of this essential concept in R programming.

Create Vector in R using c() Function

Syntax of c() Function

The c() function in R is a versatile tool for creating vectors. Its syntax is straightforward:

# Syntax of c() function

Example: Creating Vectors

Let’s start with some practical examples of creating vectors using the c() function.

# Create Numeric Vector
id <- c(10, 11, 12, 13)

# Create Character Vector
name <- c('sai', 'ram', 'deepika', 'sahithi')

# Create Date Vector
dob <- as.Date(c('1990-10-02', '1981-3-24', '1987-6-14', '1985-8-16'))

In this example, we’ve created three different vectors: a numeric vector id, a character vector name, and a date vector dob. Each vector contains elements of the same data type.

Create Named Vector

You can assign names to values while creating a vector, resulting in a named vector. Here’s an example:

# Create Named Vector
x <- c(C1 = 'A', C2 = 'B', C3 = 'C')

In this case, we’ve created a named vector x with three elements, each associated with a unique name (C1, C2, C3).

Create Vector from List

Sometimes, you may have a list and want to convert it into a vector. You can achieve this using the unlist() function:

# Create Vector from List
li <- list('A', 'B', 'C')
v <- unlist(li)

The unlist() function takes a list as an argument and converts it into a vector. It’s a handy way to work with lists in R.

Vector of Zeros

To create a vector filled with zeros, you can use the integer() function:

# Create Vector of Zeros
v <- integer(6)

In this example, we’ve created a vector v with six elements, all initialized to zero.

Vector of Specified Length

You can create a vector of a specified length with default values. For instance, to create a character vector with empty spaces, you can use the character() function:

# Create Vector of Specified Length
v <- character(5)

Here, we’ve created a character vector v with five empty strings, each representing an element.


In this tutorial, we’ve explored various methods to create vectors in R. We’ve covered the c() function, named vectors, converting lists to vectors, creating vectors of zeros, and vectors of specified lengths. Vectors are essential in R programming and serve as building blocks for more complex data structures and operations.

By understanding these fundamental concepts, you’ll be well-equipped to work with vectors and manipulate data effectively in R. Keep practicing and experimenting with different vector creation methods to enhance your R programming skills.


What are the steps to create a numeric vector in R?

To create a numeric vector in R, follow these steps:

  • Open R or RStudio.
  • Use the c() function to combine numeric values into a vector. For example: my_vector <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
  • You now have a numeric vector named my_vector.

How do I use the vector() function to create a vector in R?

The vector() function in R allows you to create a vector of a specific data type and length. Here’s how to use it:

  • Syntax: vector(mode = "data_type", length = N), where “data_type” is the type of vector you want (e.g., “numeric,” “character”) and N is the desired length.
  • Example: my_vector <- vector(mode = "numeric", length = 5) creates a numeric vector of length 5.

Are there any best practices for creating vectors in R?

Yes, there are some best practices for creating vectors in R:

  • Use the c() function for combining values into vectors.
  • Ensure that all elements in a vector have the same data type.
  • Assign meaningful variable names to your vectors.
  • Comment your code to explain the purpose of the vector.
  • Be consistent with your coding style and indentation.

Can I assign names to values in a vector in R?

Yes, you can assign names to values in a vector in R using the names() function. Here’s how:

  • Create a vector, e.g., my_vector <- c(1, 2, 3).
  • Use the names() function to assign names: names(my_vector) <- c("value1", "value2", "value3").

Now, you can access elements in the vector by their names, e.g., my_vector["value1"] will return 1.

How do I create a vector of specified length in R?

To create a vector of a specified length in R, you can use the vector() function as mentioned earlier. Specify the desired length using the length parameter, and R will create an empty vector of that length. You can then fill it with values as needed.

Example: my_vector <- vector(mode = "numeric", length = 10) creates an empty numeric vector with a length of 10, which you can populate with values later.

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