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The world we live in today is constantly advancing in terms of science and technology. Due to the Internet, the information about recent scientific discoveries—which has before been only known by the chosen few—is now widely available to the masses. Science has become popular, easily accessible, and even entertaining. One of the ever-popular objects of interest for both science enthusiasts and serious physicists is string theory, which has all the chances to become the most important theory in the history of science. But what is the point of it?
To start with, string theory has not been developed all at once in its modern version. On the contrary, its premises had been developed in the beginning of the 20th century, and since that time, string theory has undergone numerous changes. Accordingly, different types of string theory were named differently. In different times—and depending on the particularities of each type—the theory was called bosonic string theory, supersymmetric string theory, Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB, Heterotic string theories, M-theory, Matrix theory, Brane world scenarios, and many others (Dummies.com). Therefore, today’s name “string theory” is more a generalization for a number of co-related theories.
String theory as we know it is an attempt of modern physics to find a single theory that offers the ultimate explanation to such forces of nature as gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces. As physicists have known for a long time, matter consists of atoms; each of them is a combination of electrons, protons, and neutrons. As science progressed, it was discovered that electrons, protons, and neutrons consist of smaller particles. According to string theory, these particles are tiny vibrating strings (PennToday). Scientists believe they are complex objects, the existence of which is possible due to long-chain inter-atomic bonding. A matter-based vibrating string is the result of a combination of conservation laws, mass, and convenient linearities that are inherent to our habitual form of spacetime. The strings are believed to be composed of a statistically unlikely form of long-chain bonding, depending on the properties of atoms, which are complex multiparticle structures and whose properties are rather unlikely (Physics.StackEschange).
String theory introduces the idea of the multi-dimensional universe. So far, scientists have considered that only four dimensions exist (usual space dimensions and time). However, string theory suggests there should be around eleven dimensions. Nowadays, physicists are looking for a way to discover these seven new dimensions (PennToday). Only time can show what practical use humanity will be able to extract from the discovery of these additional dimensions. However, it can be said that string theory does not deny the possibility of the existence of parallel universes.
String theory today is the most prospective theory explaining such forces of nature as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces. It reconciles—or at least tries to—the general theory of relativity with quantum mechanics. Throughout its development, it has bore numerous names, such as the bosonic string theory, supersymmetric string theory, and so on. The theory implies that the particles of which atoms—and, respectively, matter—consist are strings vibrating at different frequencies. And, which seems to be more exciting to the public, string theory claims the existence of parallel universes is possible.
“String Theory for Dummies.” Cheat Sheet. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2015.
“What are the Strings in String Theory Made of?” Physics Stack Exchange. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2015.
“What is String Theory?” Physics.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2015.
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