Rules of Punctuation

punctuationPeriod (.)
End a sentence. Example: I love you more now.

Question Mark (?)
- End a sentence and show a question/inquiry. Example: Have you been there before?

Exclamation Point (!)
- End a sentence and show excitement or emphasis. Example: Don’t go there! It is too amazing!

Comma (,)
- Two or more adjectives. Example: You are a wonderful, charming person.
- Items in a list. Example: You need to buy a watermelon, some milk, and a pound of cream for the party.
- A name of a city from a state. Example: I live in Chicago, Illinois.
- An independent clause and a conjunction. Example: You are a great sportsman, and a great person in general.
- Direct quotations from regular text. Example: “Go to the baseball game,” said Jimmy.

Semicolon (;)
- Separate two independent clauses that have a similar meaning. Example: George rarely found the time to write poetry; on his way home from work, he would write about ten minutes on the train.
- Separate items in a list that already have commas. Example: She had knives, forks, spoons; balls, chains, guns; pillars and stairs.

Colon (:)
- List items. Example: At the store we had many things to sell: bubble gum, chocolate, and soda drinks.
- Elaborate/expand on a statement. Example: The days before our grandparents were much different than now: no televisions or radios to distract us from creativity.

Hyphen (-)
- Create two prefixes. Example: Pan-Asian food is amazing.
- Make compound words. Example: My sport-cup is used when I drive my flashy car.
- Write numbers as words. Example: There were forty-seven ducks in the pond. And many other uses…

Em Dash (—)
- Show surprising ideas. Example: I once had a dragona plastic toy one.
- Add a sidenote. Example: James was a strong man—he was often referred to as a giant—that could lift up a car with ease.

En Dash (–)
- Show periods of time. Example: The years 2011–2013 were super productive for me.
- Can combine open compounds like hyphens. Example: The US–Mexico border has been bombarded by bananas recently.

Single Quotation (‘)
- Enclose words within a quoted sentence. Example: Harry said, “Bill was written off as a ‘whiner’ when he complained too much at work.”
- To show key terms as new. Example: The state of ‘thoughtless awareness’ is what every meditator strives for.

Double Quotation (“)
- Show a direct quotation. Example: “I had always believed in you, Mike,” Brain said with a fatherly wink.
- Be sarcastic. Example: He was so “cool” that he had to lose all his money.

Apostrophe (‘)
- Show that something is someone’s. Example: This is John’s bike.
- Make a contraction. Example: I can’t do it, Mom—the wind is too strong to pull the boat to the shore.

Parenthesis (  )
- Make an idea more clear. Example: He said he was coming home at 6pm (exactly on the dot), so we don’t need to worry.
- Comment or show a side note. Example: I was the best basketball player on my team (despite my school being relatively small), and I eventually won the national championship.

Ellipses (…)
- Show that an idea continues (use four marks to end a sentence). Example: And they lived happy ever after….
- Show that there are missing words. Example: And during that time I had been… but it was not all that great.
- Build suspense or stress. Example: And the gigantic unknown creature crossed the street… not knowing where to go next.
- Presenting a part of a quotation. Example: “… and it ate the whole land with one gulp.”


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