Cao, Tian Y, Xueping Zhong, and Kebin Liao. Culture and Social Transformations in Reform Era China. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Internet resource.
This book discusses how China developed its civilization with little influence from western culture. It looks at the early years of civilization in China about 400 years AD before China was invaded and colonized. The writers strongly argue that China’s civilization was not affected by western civilization and that the western cultural tendencies witnessed in China today are not a result of western civilization, but are due to cross-cultural interaction and as a result, adopting cultural norms from the West. The arguments in this book strongly advocate that China’s civilization has not in anyway been influenced by westernization.
Osei, G K. African Contribution to Civilization. Baltimore, MD: Imprint Editions, 1999. Print.
Osei goes back many years, even before the slave trade, in an effort to outline the difference between real civilization and westernization. Osei argues that long before the colonization of Africa by western countries, there was religion, education, art, and technology. He even says that the first university was built in Africa (Egypt). The reason he states all this is because of his belief that Africa is the mother of civilization. However, he clearly notes that civilization was replaced by westernization in the 19th century when Africa was colonized. The colonizers brought with them their culture, which Africans were forced to adopt and that has been the case to this day. In his book, he shows in further detail the difference between civilization and westernization, giving vivid examples.
Anthony, Ayala. Civilization. Trafford on Demand Pub, 2010. Print.
Anthony provides all the information on human development from their simple nature as animals. He provides all the basic information on their systematic development and how they graduated from primitive beings to the now sophisticated, complex humans. The book traces human civilization from way back in Mesopotamia to the present day. In his treatise, he outlines differences between civilization and westernization, although from an indirect approach.
Atkins, Stephen E, and Stephen E. Atkins. The 9/11 Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Internet resource.
In this encyclopedia, crucial facts are brought out by the authors. They mainly argue how different world civilizations will work against each other. This argument is a clear indication that civilization is not westernization. The book outlines the different forms of civilizations that currently exist and admits that western civilization is the most popular, but that, in the near future, the other civilizations will struggle against it. The encyclopedia makes clear how civilization is different from westernization, arguing that westernization is a culture that was adopted by many European-colonized nations, but since independence, they have been struggling to denounce it. Denunciation of westernization is in fact the manifestation of civilization and this brings out a clear contrast between westernization and civilization.
Von, Laue T. H. The World Revolution of Westernization: The Twentieth Century in Global Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Print.
This is a controversial book, clearly outlining what westernization is. However, the controversy is that although the book says westernization has taken the world to a new level, not to be confused with, or regarded as, civilization. The author indicates and argues that westernization is what resulted in the two world wars. The author clearly postulates that it is westernization (the adoption of the western culture) which has brought more harm than good, and he points out that civilization is way beyond westernization, giving reasonable arguments in his book to support his stance.
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