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The following annotated bibliography sample serves as a guide for crafting your own academic or research references. It goes over essential components that detail the main insights, methodologies, and contributions of each source. Adapting this framework to reflect the specific nature and themes of your research will enhance it even more. Remember, the objective is to summarize the sources in a way that demonstrates their relevance and importance to your chosen topic.
- Bazerman, Max H., and Don A. Moore. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 8th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
This seminal work examines the systematic flaws in the decision-making processes of managers. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of the biases, psychological tendencies, and pitfalls that managers often fall into and offer practical strategies to overcome them. An essential read for anyone looking to understand the cognitive challenges managers face in their decision-making roles.
- Kahneman, Daniel. “Thinking, Fast and Slow.” Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011.
Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman presents decades of research to help us understand what really goes on inside our heads when making decisions. While not limited to managerial decision-making, the insights from this book are directly applicable, discussing the distinction between intuitive, quick thinking and more deliberate, slow thinking.
- Simon, Herbert A. “Bounded Rationality and Organizational Learning.” Organization Science, vol. 2, no. 1, 1991, pp. 125-134.
Simon’s article delves into the concept of “bounded rationality”, suggesting that individuals are not always optimal decision-makers due to limitations in knowledge, time, and cognitive capacity. His insights are crucial for managers looking to understand the inherent limitations in decision-making processes.
- Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahneman. “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science, vol. 185, no. 4157, 1974, pp. 1124-1131.
This groundbreaking paper by Tversky and Kahneman introduced several biases that hinder our judgment under uncertainty. Many of these biases are highly relevant to managerial decision-making, especially in complex, uncertain business environments.
- Argyris, Chris. “Double Loop Learning in Organizations.” Harvard Business Review, vol. 55, no. 5, 1977, pp. 115-125.
Argyris discusses the concept of double loop learning and its importance in organizational settings. He suggests that managers often operate within existing frameworks or “single loops” without challenging underlying assumptions. For effective decision-making, managers need to engage in “double loop learning” where they question and modify those very assumptions.
- Nutt, Paul C. “Types of Organizational Decision Processes.” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3, 1984, pp. 414-450.
In this article, Nutt explores various types of decision-making processes within organizations. He classifies them based on their strategies and outcomes, providing insights into how different approaches can lead to different decision-making results.
- Dörner, Dietrich. “The Logic of Failure: Recognizing and Avoiding Error in Complex Situations.” Metropolitan Books, 1996.
Dörner discusses the psychology of decision-making in complex scenarios, often leading to failure. Drawing from a variety of real-world examples, he offers insights into how and why decisions go wrong and how to improve judgment in challenging situations.
- March, James G. “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning.” Organization Science, vol. 2, no. 1, 1991, pp. 71-87.
March introduces the concept of the balance between exploration (seeking out new knowledge) and exploitation (using existing knowledge) in organizational learning. The implications for managerial decision-making are profound, suggesting that managers need to strike a balance between these two approaches to drive optimal outcomes.
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