Most people who are not keen haiku writers think of haiku (“haiku” is both used for singular and plural) as three lines of 5-7-5 syllables having to do something with nature. Haiku is more than a form though–it is a style of its own. In fact, the syllable counting rule only applies to traditional haiku, written in Japanese. When people write haiku in English, usually they don’t use the 5-7-5 syllable form and instead work with this format: short line/longer line/short line. But again, haiku is more of a style of poetry rather than a form, with its own set of aesthetics.
Haiku has these key stylistic features:
- The majority of haiku contain two parts.
- The two parts usually show a comparison, a contrast, or an association.
- A season commonly is referenced, but only one season for one haiku.
- The less punctuation the better.
- The less complicated and longs words, the better.
- Using “I” or “me” is not prohibited, but discouraged.
- The images juxtaposing each other or showing similarity shouldn’t connect too obviously.
- The images juxtaposing each other or showing similarity shouldn’t be too obscure in their connection, either.
- Make it as simple and direct as possible, leaving out unnecessary adjectives, verbs, and nouns.
- Using metaphors and similes are strongly discouraged. If done rarely with taste, it is acceptable.
- According to its founder, haiku should exhibit Zen principles, though it is not entirely necessary at present for this to be shown in a haiku.
- Haiku are usually cut into two parts either by punctuation, by making a grammatical shift, or a line break. Haiku can be just one part, though it should contain enough mystery and lead readers to think about something in addition to the one part.
As you can see, haiku have a lot of stylistic peculiarities, and these are just the basics. Different schools of thought of haiku add their own rules on top of these ones. But anyways, here is a haiku which demonstrates some of the rules above:
I push the beetle
back on its feet
This one is written by me and was published in Frogpond, the haiku journal for the Haiku Society of America. You see the two parts juxtaposing each other in not such an obvious way, a seasonal reference, a Zen reference to compassion/oneness/not discriminating, simple language, and no metaphors or similes. But you may have noticed I used punctuation and used a personal pronoun. When both are used tastefully, it can work. The ellipsis show something in process and waiting for something. The “I” shows my relation to the beetle, which shows my compassion and non-discriminating nature towards the beetle.
Haiku is deeper than a simple poetical structure relating to nature–it has a whole culture to itself which one may take a lifetime to understand and to use properly when writing haiku.
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