Grammar Handbook - Page 2

We have arranged dozens of guides and samples on grammar and the technical side of writing to help anyone improve his or her writing in this respect.

How to Use Articles

What is It? An article is a type of adjective that is always used together with a noun and carries information about it. Articles are…

How to Use Colons 

What is a Colon Needed For? A colon (:) is a punctuation mark used to start any kind of enumeration or lists. It is also…

Past Simple Tense

What is It? The past simple tense is used to express the notion that an action began and was completed at a certain time in…

Past Perfect Tense

What is It? The past perfect is had + a verb in passive voice (past particle). When to Use? Cases Examples *Show how something happened…

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

What is It? Uses will have been + a verb in the present tense (present particle) or am/is/are + going to have been + a…

Future Continuous Tense

What is It? Using will/won’t + be + verb (present particle) when you want to say an action will be in progress in the future…

Using Semicolons

The general rule with semicolons: before and after a semicolon, there needs to be independent clauses, or phrases that could be complete sentences. When to…

How to Use Commas

The general rule for commas is that we use them to make reading more understandable by separating parts of a sentence so that readers don’t…

Proper Use of Dashes

There are two types of dashes: the en dash ( – ) and em dash ( — ). When to Use the En Dash: 1.…

Subordinate Clauses

What’s the Difference Between Independent and Subordinate Clauses? English sentences can exist in the form of both independent and subordinate clauses. An independent clause is…

Quotation Marks

Why Do We Need Quotation Marks? Quotation marks are needed to mark a phrase or sentence as a quotation, direct speech, or literal title or…

Rules of Punctuation

Period (.) End a sentence. Example: I love you more now. Question Mark (?) – End a sentence and show a question/inquiry. Example: Have you…

Word Order in English Sentences

Word Order in Positive Sentences The basic rule of English syntax for positive sentences is that between a subject and an object of a sentence…

Fragmented Sentences

How to Recognize a Fragment? A fragment is a sequence of words that begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark: usually…

How to Use Prepositions Properly

What are Prepositions Needed for? Prepositions are parts of a sentence needed to connect nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns to other parts of a sentence.…

Word Repetition

What is Wrong about Repetition? “Word rep.” is supposedly one of the most frequent comments left by teachers on papers submitted by their students. Though…

Word Order in English Questions

Word Order in English Questions The word order in English questions is the same as in positive sentences: subject — verb (predicate) — object. The…

Run-On Sentences Rules

What is a Run-On Sentence? Students who study English as a second language rather often face the problem of long sentence lengths. Sometimes the sentences…

Main Stylistic Mistakes

Using Passive Voice Too Often Passive voice is needed when you want to make an emphasis on an object that has undergone certain changes or…

Active and Passive Voice

What is Active Voice? Active voice is a way to construct a sentence where the subject performs actions towards the object. The most clear and…

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Grammar Handbook Samples

Mistakes: Commas and Apostrophes

Misuse of Commas Too Many Examples: “I was a bouncer, at a club, that hosted rock bands, such as The Conversations.” “There was, a giant…

Word Usage Examples

Clarification of ‘That’ and ‘Which’ That is used in what’s called restrictive clauses. Restrictive clauses are phrases that cannot be taken out without changing the meaning…

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